We report one patient with agenesis and two with hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA) from an angiographic series of 1275 consecutive patients. In all three patients, MRI and MR angiography were used to establish the anatomical situation; however, they may not clearly distinguish between hypoplasia and agenesis or acquired stenosis or occlusion of the ICA. In such cases, CT of the skull base may be obtained to clarify matters. In all patients, retrograde flow via a large posterior communicating artery was demonstrated. Single-photon emission computed tomography confirmed both the adequacy of cerebral perfusion and the preservation of vasomotor reactivity.