Risk factors for conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy

Surg Endosc. 2005 Jul;19(7):905-9. doi: 10.1007/s00464-004-2197-0. Epub 2005 May 4.


Background: Conversion to open cholecystectomy is still required in some patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative factors associated with conversion to open cholecystectomy in elective cholecystectomy and acute cholecystitis.

Methods: The records of 1,804 patients who underwent cholecystectomy from May 1992 to January 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographics and preoperative data of patients who required conversion to laparotomy were compared to those with successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Results: Conversion to open cholecystectomy was needed in 94 patients (5.2%),of which 44 (2.8%) had no inflammation and 50 (18.4%) had acute inflammation of the gallbladder. Male gender, age older than 60 years, previous upper abdominal surgery, diabetes, and severity of inflammation were all significantly correlated with an increased conversion rate to laparotomy. Also, the conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis patients was associated with greater white blood cell count, fever, elevated total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase levels, and the various types of inflammation.

Conclusions: None of these risk factors were contraindications to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This may help predict the difficulty of the procedure and permit the surgeon to better inform patients about the risk of conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cholecystectomy*
  • Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic*
  • Cholecystitis / surgery*
  • Cholecystolithiasis / surgery*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Contraindications
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Patient Selection
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors