Order information in working memory: an integrative review of evidence from brain and behavior

Psychol Bull. 2005 May;131(3):323-39. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.3.323.


Evidence about memory for order information comes from a number of different methodologies: human cognition, patient studies, neuroimaging studies, and animal lesion and behavioral studies. The present article discusses (a) evidence that order and item memory are separable; (b) proposed mechanisms for order memory (interitem associations, direct codes, hierarchical codes, feature codes, and magnitude codes) and evidence for each; (c) evidence for the neural substrates of order memory from patient, neuroimaging, and animal lesion and single-cell recording studies; (d) barriers to integration between the disciplines; and (e) suggestions for better coordination of efforts between the different disciplines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior / physiology*
  • Behavior, Animal / physiology
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Cognition / physiology
  • Humans
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Memory, Short-Term / physiology
  • Models, Neurological
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology
  • Research Design
  • Serial Learning / physiology