Cultured human diploid fibroblasts and cultured rat granulosa cells were exposed to intermittent and continuous radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) used in mobile phones, with different specific absorption rates (SAR) and different mobile-phone modulations. DNA strand breaks were determined by means of the alkaline and neutral comet assay. RF-EMF exposure (1800 MHz; SAR 1.2 or 2 W/kg; different modulations; during 4, 16 and 24h; intermittent 5 min on/10 min off or continuous wave) induced DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Effects occurred after 16 h exposure in both cell types and after different mobile-phone modulations. The intermittent exposure showed a stronger effect in the comet assay than continuous exposure. Therefore we conclude that the induced DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects.