In eukaryotes and archaea, uridines in various RNAs are converted to pseudouridines by RNA-guided RNA modification complexes termed H/ACA RNPs. Guide RNAs within the complexes base-pair with target RNAs to direct modification of specific ribonucleotides. Cbf5, a protein component of the complex, likely catalyzes the modification. However, little is known about the organization of H/ACA RNPs and the roles of the multiple proteins thought to comprise the complexes. We have reconstituted functional archaeal H/ACA RNPs from recombinant components, defined the components necessary and sufficient for function, and determined the direct RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions that occur between the components. The results provide substantial insight into the functional organization of this RNP. The functional complex requires a guide RNA and each of four proteins: Cbf5, Gar1, L7Ae, and Nop10. Two proteins interact directly with the guide RNA: L7Ae and Cbf5. L7Ae does not interact with other H/ACA RNP proteins in the absence of the RNA. We have defined two novel functions for Cbf5. Cbf5 is the protein that specifically recognizes and binds H/ACA guide RNAs. In addition, Cbf5 recruits the two other essential proteins, Gar1 and Nop10, to the pseudouridylation guide complex.