Miniaturization of biological assays requires dispensing liquids in the submicroliter range of volumes. Accuracy and reproducibility of dispensing this range depend on both the dispenser and the receptacle in which the assay is constructed. Miniaturization technologies developed by Aurora Discovery, Inc. (San Diego, CA) include high-density multiwell plates for assay samples and reagent storage, as well as piezo-based and solenoid valve-based liquid dispensers. Some basic principles of small-volume dispensing by jetting are described to provide context for dispenser design and function. Performance of the latest instruments incorporating these dispensing devices is presented.