Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contains two isoenzymes of methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), MCR I and MCR II, which catalyze the methane-forming step and which together represent more than 10% of the cellular protein. We describe here the preparation of isoenzyme-specific antisera against the two MCR isoenzymes and their use in the quantitative immunochemical determination of the two isoenzymes in the methanogen. The relative and absolute cellular concentration of the two proteins is shown to be strongly affected by growth conditions such as the temperature, pH, and substrate concentration. Conditions were found yielding cells which contained essentially only MCR I or MCR II. Using antisera against MCR I and MCR II, MCR from other methanogens were immunochemically compared. Evidence is presented that Methanobacterium wolfei also contains two isoenzymes of MCR.