The World Health Organization has identified a worldwide shortage of occupational health professionals, but evidence suggests that the work and education of these professionals vary across countries. This survey examined the professional development of occupational physicians, occupational nurses, industrial hygienists, and ergonomists in terms of practice competencies and academic curriculum. Of 89 countries that received the survey, 48 (54%) responded. Important differences in competencies and curricula were identified for all groups. More competencies were identified more frequently in developed countries. Academic programs existed more often in developed countries, but curriculum contents varied. The study provides a concrete reference point for discussion and development of competencies and curriculum.