In eukaryotic cells, peroxiredoxins are both antioxidants and regulators of H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling. We previously found that peroxiredoxin-I (Prx-I) was overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue. Since overexpressed protein can induce a humoral immune response, we examined whether serum from NSCLC patients exhibited immunoreactivity against Prx-I using Western blotting. We found that 25 (47%) of 53 NSCLC patients tested had autoantibodies against Prx-I in their sera, whereas such activity was detected in 4 (8%) sera from 50 healthy subjects. Prx-I itself was detected in the sera from 18 (34%) of 53 NSCLC patients but in only 1 (2%) serum from 50 controls. Moreover, 17% of NSCLC sera were positive to both Prx-I antibody and antigen but none in control sera. The data indicate both Prx-I autoantibody and circulating antigen are potential biomarkers for use in serological diagnosis of NSCLC. Interestingly enough, we found that Prx-I was secreted by lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) but not by non-cancer lung cells (BEAS 2B) or breast cancer cells (MCF7). This cell culture study suggests the possibility of Prx-I secretion from NSCLC tumor tissues.