The excessive cardiovascular mortality of dialysis patients is at least in part related to chronic inflammation, which is associated with the occurrence of malnutrition. The negative effects of chronic inflammation on nutritional status are mediated by proinflammatory cytokines leading to a reduction in appetite and increased muscle catabolism. However, dietary behavior itself may also independently affect inflammation. Reduced dietary supply of vitamins C, B6, B12 and folate, as well as regular coffee consumption and increased intake of dietary advanced glycation end products may trigger chronic inflammation. On the other hand, a Mediterranean dietary pattern and regular soy intake both have been shown to attenuate chronic inflammation. Dietary interventions aiming to attenuate the chronic inflammatory status in dialysis patients need further exploration.