Although graft and patient survival after solid organ transplantation have improved markedly in recent years, transplant recipients continue to experience an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. A number of factors are known to impact on the increased risk of CVD in this population, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Of these factors, new-onset diabetes after transplantation has been identified as one of the most important, being associated with reduced graft function and patient survival, and increased risk of graft loss. In 2003, International Consensus Guidelines on New-onset Diabetes after Transplantation were published, which aimed to establish a precise definition and diagnosis of the condition and recommend management strategies to reduce its occurrence and impact. These updated 2004 guidelines, developed in consultation with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), extend the recommendations of the previous guidelines and encompass new-onset diabetes after kidney, liver and heart transplantation. It is hoped that adoption of these management approaches pre- and post-transplant will reduce individuals' risk of developing new-onset diabetes after transplantation as well as ameliorating the long-term impact of this serious complication.