Paraoxonase 1 Q192R (PON1-192) polymorphism is associated with reduced lipid peroxidation in healthy young men on a low-carotenoid diet supplemented with tomato juice

Br J Nutr. 2005 Mar;93(3):291-7. doi: 10.1079/bjn20041309.


The HDL-bound enzyme paraoxonase (PON) protects LDL from oxidation and may therefore attenuate the development of atherosclerosis. We examined the effect of tomato and carrot juice consumption on PON1 activity and lipid peroxidation in healthy young volunteers with different PON1-192 genotypes (Q/R substitution at position 192). In this randomized cross-over study twenty-two healthy, non-smoking men on a low-carotenoid diet received 330 ml/d tomato juice (37.0 mg lycopene, 1.6 mg beta-carotene) or carrot juice (27.1 mg beta-carotene, 13.1 mg alpha-carotene) for 2 weeks. Intervention periods were preceded by 2-week low-carotenoid intake. We determined the PON1-192 genotype by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) and measured ex vivo LDL oxidation (lag time), plasma malondialdehyde and PON1 activity at the beginning and end of each intervention period. At baseline, lag time was higher (P<0.05) in QQ (111 (sd 9) min) than in QR/RR subjects (101 (sd 8) min). Neither tomato nor carrot juice consumption had significant effects on PON1 activity. However, tomato juice consumption reduced (P<0.05) plasma malondialdehyde in QR/RR (Delta: -0.073 (sd 0.11) micromol/l) as compared to QQ subjects (Delta:+0.047 (sd 0.13) micromol/l). Carrot juice had no significant effect on malondialdehyde irrespective of the PON1-192 genotype. Male volunteers with the QR/RR genotype showed an increased lipid peroxidation at baseline. Although tomato and carrot juice fail to affect PON1 activity, tomato juice intake reduced lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers carrying the R-allele of the PON1-192 genotype and could thus contribute to CVD risk reduction in these individuals.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / blood
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / genetics*
  • Beverages*
  • Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases / blood
  • Carotenoids / administration & dosage*
  • Carotenoids / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Daucus carota
  • Diet
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation / genetics*
  • Lycopene
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Solanum lycopersicum
  • beta Carotene / administration & dosage
  • beta Carotene / blood


  • beta Carotene
  • Carotenoids
  • alpha-carotene
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
  • arylesterase
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase
  • PON1 protein, human
  • Lycopene