Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor and is expressed by a number of tumor cells, contributing to their growth both in vitro and in vivo. Spontaneous lung metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells, which did not significantly express MK, was significantly less extensive in mice deficient in the midkine gene than in wild-type mice, when the tumor was subcutaneously grown above the thigh. Midkine strongly enhanced migration of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Therefore, midkine is also a host factor enhancing tumor metastasis. Anti-midkine therapy for malignancy may act on midkine produced by both the tumor and host.