In-stent restenosis after carotid angioplasty and stenting: a challenge for the vascular surgeon

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005 Jun;29(6):601-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.01.033.


Purpose: This study aims to review the incidence of in-stent restenosis (ISR), the factors which determine restenosis, and to evaluate the use of various endovascular techniques for the management of ISR following carotid artery stenting (CAS).

Methods: Four hundred and seven patients (334 men, mean age 63 years, range 46-86, median 65 years) were treated with CAS between December 2000 and March 2004. Three hundred and seventy-two (89%) patients had at least one ultrasound evaluation performed 6 months after procedure (range 6-40). Recurrent stenosis >80% detected with duplex ultrasound scans were further evaluated by angiography and treated with repeat endovascular procedure.

Results: CAS was performed successfully in all cases with a Carotid WallStent (Boston Scientific) using a cerebral protection device (filter). Perioperative complications included four (0.9%) minor and two (0.4%) major strokes these latter two patients died at 5 and 12 days after the operation. No other deaths occurred. A total of 15 carotid arteries (3.6%) in 14 patients had ISR. All ISR were treated with a repeat endovascular procedure: three balloon angioplasty alone, eight angioplasty and secondary stenting, four angioplasty with cutting balloon. Postsurgical restenosis was confirmed to be the only predictive factor for the development of in-stent restenosis (OR 14.5, 95% CI 2.3-113.4, p=0.005). Endovascular treatment of ISR achieved technical success without periprocedurale complications and the absence of significant restenosis over a median follow up time of 12.4 months (range 3.5-30.7).

Conclusion: Our experience with a large cohort of CAS showed an encouragingly low incidence of ISR (3.6%) and successful treatment by repeat endovascular intervention. We recommend attempting all endovascular possibilities before performing stent removal.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angioplasty, Balloon* / instrumentation
  • Carotid Stenosis / diagnosis
  • Carotid Stenosis / mortality
  • Carotid Stenosis / therapy*
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / diagnosis
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / mortality
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retreatment
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk
  • Stents*
  • Survival Analysis
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color