In acute inflammation, infiltration of neutrophils often precedes a second phase of monocyte invasion, and data in the literature suggest that neutrophils may directly stimulate mobilization of monocytes via neutrophil granule proteins. In this study, we present a role for neutrophil-derived heparin-binding protein (HBP) in monocyte arrest on endothelium. Adhesion of neutrophils to bovine aorta endothelial cells (ECs) or HUVEC-triggered secretion of HBP and binding of the protein to the EC surface. Blockade of neutrophil adhesion by treatment with a mAb to CD18 greatly reduced accumulation of HBP. In a flow chamber model, immobilized recombinant HBP induced arrest of human monocytes or monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells to activated EC or plates coated with recombinant adhesion molecules (E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1). However, immobilized recombinant HBP did not influence arrest of neutrophils or lymphocytes. Treatment of MM6 cells with recombinant HBP evoked a rapid and clear-cut increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) that was found to be critical for the HBP-induced monocyte arrest inasmuch as pretreatment with the intracellular calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM abolished the evoked increase in adhesion. Thus, secretion of a neutrophil granule protein, accumulating on the EC surface and promoting arrest of monocytes, could contribute to the recruitment of monocytes at inflammatory loci.