Opiate abuse is associated with long-lasting neural adaptative changes in the brain. Increasing evidence demonstrates that opiates significantly alter the function of the glutamatergic system, while how the system is regulated still remains elusive. In the present study, we studied the effect of morphine on extracellular glutamate concentration in the hippocampus, a nucleus rich of the glutamatergic neurons. The results showed that glutamate concentration in the extracellular fluid of the hippocampus was decreased following either acute or chronic treatment of morphine. However, naloxone-induced withdrawal increased glutamate concentration significantly. These results suggest an adaptation of the glutamatergic neuronal transmission in the hippocampus after morphine treatment.