Background: "Double-insurance bypass" was recently advocated to avoid the risk of cerebral ischemia during prolonged temporary occlusion of the carotid artery. For large aneurysms needing temporary but prolonged obliteration of the internal carotid artery (ICA). We have attempted the double-insurance bypass in 15 patients and, herein, report the efficacies and limitations of the procedure, and surgical techniques to make this procedure safer.
Methods: We treated 15 patients with complex internal carotid aneurysms by clipping surgery with the aid of radial artery (RA) to proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass, so-called double-insurance bypass. We analyzed surgical results of the procedure.
Results: In 11 patients, the duration of temporary occlusion of the ICA could be prolonged for as long as 110 minutes (mean, 45 minutes) without any ischemic complications. One patient in the earlier period of our experience suffered extended cerebral infarction due to possible restricted blood flow through the RA, because the brachial artery was compressed by the firm shoulder joint and neighboring structures. Thereafter, we routinely monitored the blood pressure of MCA (MCABP) and never experienced such cortical infarctions. Another 3 patients, however, experienced ischemia in the territory of perforating arteries that originated from a segment that could not be perfused by the RA-MCA bypass.
Conclusions: In combination with monitoring of MCABP, the double-insurance bypass can be a safer and more potent adjunctive procedure for the treatment of complex internal carotid aneurysms which require prolonged temporary occlusion of the ICA.