Recent advances in microscopy and optics, computer sciences, and the available fluorophores used to label molecules of interest have empowered investigators to utilize intravital two-photon microscopy to study the dynamic events within the functioning kidney. This emerging technique enables investigators to follow functional and structural alterations with subcellular resolution within the same field of view over seconds to weeks. This approach invigorates the validity of data and facilitates analysis and interpretation as trends are more readily determined when one is more closely monitoring indicative physiological parameters. Therefore, in this review we emphasize how specific approaches will enable studies into glomerular permeability, proximal tubule endocytosis, and microvascular function within the kidney. We attempt to show how visual data can be quantified, thus allowing enhanced understanding of the process under study. Finally, emphasis is given to the possible future opportunities of this technology and its present limitations.