Hepatitis C virus uses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the viral RNA to directly recruit human 40S ribosome subunits during cap-independent translation initiation. Although IRES-mediated translation initiation is not subject to many of the regulatory mechanisms that control cap-dependent translation initiation, it is unknown whether other noncanonical protein factors are involved in this process. Thus, a global protein composition analysis of native and IRES-bound 40S ribosomal complexes has been conducted to facilitate an understanding of the IRES ribosome recruitment mechanism. A combined top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry approach was used to identify both the proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in the native 40S subunit and the IRES recruited translation initiation complex. Thirty-one out of a possible 32 ribosomal proteins were identified by combining top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry techniques. Proteins were found to contain PTMs, including loss of methionine, acetylation, methylation, and disulfide bond formation. In addition to the 40S ribosomal proteins, RACK1 was consistently identified in the 40S fraction, indicating that this protein is associated with the 40S subunit. Similar methodology was then applied to the hepatitis C virus IRES-bound 40S complex. Two 40S ribosomal proteins, RS25 and RS29, were found to contain different PTMs than those in the native 40S subunit. In addition, RACK1, eukaryotic initiation factor 3 proteins and nucleolin were identified in the IRES-mediated translation initiation complex.