Lyophilization closures for protein based drugs

J Parenter Sci Technol. 1992 Mar-Apr;46(2):54-61.


Rubber stopper formulations which are currently used as lyophilization stoppers vary widely in their capacities to absorb and release moisture. Release of moisture from the stopper over the shelf life of the product may result in drug degradation for extremely low cake weight products. The degree to which rubber formulations absorb water is dependent upon the components of these formulations. Independently, polymers and fillers absorb water during autoclave cycles to varying levels depending upon such factors as the solubility, structure, possibility of chemical reactions and impurity levels of these materials. Once combined into a stopper formulation, the raw materials can react to form species which further promote absorption. Data is presented comparing the absorption characteristics of low versus high absorbent rubber formulations. The release of moisture from these formulas when stoppered on vials containing dry product is also discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Drug Packaging*
  • Freeze Drying*
  • Proteins
  • Rubber*


  • Proteins
  • Rubber