Autoimmunity may be associated with acute or chronic inflammation. In order to determine whether the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) was an indicator of inflammatory events that precede, predict, or associate with islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes, CRP was measured in sequential antibody-negative, seroconversion, and follow-up-positive samples from 65 prospectively studied islet autoantibody-positive children. Although changes in CRP concentrations were observed in some children, overall CRP concentrations were similar in antibody-negative samples (median, 0.21 mg/L), antibody-positive samples (median, 0.26 mg/L), and samples at seroconversion (median, 0.26 mg/L). CRP concentrations at diabetes onset (median, 0.59 mg/L) were not significantly increased over antibody-negative samples (P = 0.07). CRP concentrations did not predict diabetes development. CRP concentrations were related to age (r = 0.26; P < 0.001) and were increased in samples obtained from October to January (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that CRP concentrations are not a valuable marker of progression to type 1 diabetes and highlight the importance of correcting analyses for seasonal variations.