Signaling in B cells via Toll-like receptors

Curr Opin Immunol. 2005 Jun;17(3):230-6. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2005.03.003.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their ligands have emerged as important regulators of immunity, relevant to a wide range of effector responses from vaccination to autoimmunity. The most well-studied ligands of TLRs expressed on B cells include the lipopolysaccharides (for TLR4) and CpG-containing DNAs (for TLR9), which induce and/or co-stimulate B cells to undergo proliferation, class switching and differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. Recent developments in this area include advancements into our understanding of the role of these receptor pathways in B cells, and in particular the relevance of TLR9, which has received substantial attention as both a Th1-like inflammatory immunomodulator and a pathogenic co-stimulator of autoreactive B cell responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • TLR4 protein, human
  • TLR9 protein, human
  • Tlr9 protein, mouse
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9
  • Toll-Like Receptors