Low peak bone density (PBD) in adulthood is an important determinant of osteoporotic fracture (OF) in the elderly. The tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) gene has been considered as an important candidate gene for PBD due to its important role in bone turnover. In this study, we recruited a total of 1,263 subjects from 402 Chinese nuclear families composed of both parents and at least one daughter, and tested the association of the (CA)(n) polymorphism in intron 4 of the TNFR2 gene with PBD using a more contemporary quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT). Significant within-family association was detected between the CA16 allele and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine with the P-value of 0.005 after permutations, which is still significant after correction for multiple testing. Some evidence of total-family association between the CA16 allele and lumbar spine BMD was found (P=0.021), although the significant level did not reach the empirical threshold (P< or =0.007). About 3.14% of lumbar spine BMD variation can be explained by the CA16 allele. In summary, our results suggest that the TNFR2 gene may play an important role in determining lumbar spine BMD variation in Chinese women.