Development of a high-throughput method for preparing human urine for two-dimensional electrophoresis

Proteomics. 2005 Jun;5(9):2315-8. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200401267.


There is an increasing interest in analysing the human urinary proteome in the search for biomarkers. However, despite the ease of its collection, urine is a difficult fluid to analyse by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) because of its dilute protein content and high salt levels. Here, we describe a method for high-throughput processing of urine for 2-D PAGE. Urine is filtered and applied to solid phase extraction columns. After washing, the urinary proteins are eluted and freeze dried. The lyophilised powder can then be resuspended in an appropriate buffer for downstream proteomic analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Buffers
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Humans
  • Proteome / analysis*
  • Ultracentrifugation
  • Urine / chemistry*


  • Buffers
  • Proteome