An improved method for allele replacement in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed. The two main ingredients of the method are: (i) novel ColE1-type cloning vectors derived from pBR322 and pUC19; and (ii) a family of cassettes containing a portable oriT, the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis as a counter-selectable marker, and a chloramphenicol-resistance gene allowing positive selection of both oriT and sacB. Introduction of plasmid-borne DNA into the chromosome was achieved in several steps. The DNA to be exchanged was first cloned into the new ColE1-type vectors. After insertion of the oriT and sacB sequences, these plasmid were conjugally transferred into P. aeruginosa and plasmid integrants were selected. Plating on sucrose-containing medium allowed positive selection for both plasmid excision and curing since Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains containing the sacB gene in single- or multiple copy were highly sensitive to 5% sucrose in rich medium. This procedure was successfully used to introduce an agmR mutation into P. aeruginosa wild-type strain PAO1 and should allow the exchange of any DNA segment into any non-essential regions of the P. aeruginosa chromosome.