In the present study, we report the identification, in the frog brain, of a novel neuropeptide, termed 26RFa, that belongs to the RFamide peptide family. The cDNAs encoding the precursors for 26RFa have been characterized in human and rats. In rats, prepro-26RFa mRNA is expressed exclusively in two hypothalamic nuclei involved in the control of feeding behavior. Intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa in mice induced a dose-dependent increase in food consumption. Taken together, these data indicate that 26RFa is a novel neuropeptide that may have important biological functions in vertebrates.