Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes -- role of the adipokines

Curr Mol Med. 2005 May;5(3):333-9. doi: 10.2174/1566524053766022.

Abstract

The role of adipocytes as protein secreting cells has been known for almost 15 years. Most of these proteins have known biological activity and are called adipokines. However, only a few of the adipokines have been shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. The latter effects are direct or indirect. The adipokines regulating insulin sensitivity are tumor necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, interleukin-6, resistin and leptin. This review examines the mechanism how these adipokines influence insulin sensitivity, how the adipocyte production of the adipokines is regulated and if genetic variance in the genes encoding for adipokines is important for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / metabolism*
  • Adiponectin
  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cytokines / chemistry
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Hormones, Ectopic / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Leptin / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • Resistin
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

Substances

  • Adiponectin
  • Cytokines
  • Hormones, Ectopic
  • Insulin
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Interleukin-6
  • Leptin
  • RETN protein, human
  • Resistin
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, human