Obstructive sleep apnea is a significant medical disorder that is increasingly recognized for its wide-ranging effects on physical and mental health. It can have a profound negative impact on sleep quality, daytime alertness, mood, and cardiovascular health, and effects on metabolic and endocrinologic parameters. There is little known about the prevalence and presentation of apnea in athletes and its potential effect on athletic performance. A high index of suspicion for apnea should exist, particularly in those who have anatomic features and symptoms consistent with the disorder. This article reviews pathophysiology, diagnostic modalities, and treatment interventions.