Self-rated everyday and prospective memory abilities of cigarette smokers and non-smokers: a web-based study

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Jun 1;78(3):235-41. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.11.008. Epub 2004 Dec 28.


The present study examined self-ratings of two aspects of everyday memory performance: long-term prospective memory-measured by the prospective memory questionnaire (PMQ), and everyday memory-measured by the everyday memory questionnaire (EMQ). Use of other substances was also measured and used as covariates in the study. To ensure confidentiality and to expand the numbers used in previous studies, an Internet study was carried out and data from 763 participants was gathered. After controlling for other drug use and strategy use, the data from the PMQ revealed that smokers reported a greater number of long-term prospective memory errors than non-smokers. There were also differences between light and heavier smokers in long-term prospective memory, suggesting that nicotine may have a dose-dependent impact upon long-term prospective memory performance. There was also a significant ANOVA group effect on the EMQ, although the trend for more memory errors amongst the heavier smokers was statistically only borderline (p=.057). These findings suggest there are selective memory deficits associated with smoking and that long-term prospective memory deficits should be added to the growing list of problems associated with cigarette use.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Affect
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internet*
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Nicotine / pharmacology*
  • Self-Assessment*
  • Smoking* / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors


  • Nicotine