Anautogeny is a successful reproductive strategy utilized by many mosquito species and other disease-transmitting arthropod vectors. Developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying anautogeny in mosquitoes is very important because this reproductive strategy is the driving force behind the transmission of disease to millions of people. Information gained from mosquito studies may also be applicable to other blood feeding insect vectors. The conversion of protein from blood into yolk protein precursors for the developing oocytes is an essential part of the reproductive cycle, and understanding how this process is regulated could lead to safe, specific, and effective ways to block reproduction in blood feeding insects. Great gains have been made in elucidating the mechanisms that regulate vitellogenesis in mosquitoes, especially Ae. aegypti. However, a number of questions remain to be answered to make the picture more complete. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the nutritional regulation of vitellogenesis in mosquitoes and the questions that remain to be answered about this important biological phenomenon.