Metabolic profile of XK469 (2(R)-[4-(7-chloro-2-quinoxalinyl)oxyphenoxy]-propionic acid; NSC698215) in patients and in vitro: low potential for active or toxic metabolites or for drug-drug interactions

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;56(4):351-7. doi: 10.1007/s00280-004-0962-3. Epub 2005 May 13.


As part of an ongoing phase 1 study, we studied the excretion of XK469 and its metabolism in patients and in vitro. Five primary metabolites were identified by HPLC/MS/MS. An oxidized product formed by cytosolic aldehyde oxidase was the predominant species both in urine and human hepatocytes in vitro. Conjugates of XK469 with glycine, taurine, and glucuronic acid, as well as the microsomal product, 4-oxo-XK469, were also found in urine and in vitro, but none were major contributors to the mass balance for XK469 elimination. Based upon the relative concentrations circulating in plasma, systemic exposure to parent drug was 100-fold higher than for the metabolites. Thus, both toxicity and efficacy of XK469 are most likely to be produced by the parent molecule, rather than the metabolites. Urinary recovery of parent drug was low (2% of dose in 24 h), partly because of the long half-life of XK469 (approximately 3 days). In addition, the metabolite profile in urine indicates that only 25% of the XK469-derived material was unchanged drug. Thus, urinary excretion was not a major factor in XK469 elimination. Variations in systemic exposure to XK469 will be strongly influenced by factors that alter the activity of aldehyde oxidase, including pharmacogenetics, enzyme inhibition, and enzyme induction, but no specific modifiers have been reported. The multiday half-life of XK469 hampered our ability to obtain a complete mass balance, and the possibility exists that other routes, such as biliary excretion, may also play a substantial role in XK469 disposition.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism*
  • Quinoxalines / metabolism*
  • Quinoxalines / pharmacokinetics
  • Quinoxalines / urine
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Quinoxalines
  • XK 469