Essential oil poisoning: N-acetylcysteine for eugenol-induced hepatic failure and analysis of a national database

Eur J Pediatr. 2005 Aug;164(8):520-2. doi: 10.1007/s00431-005-1692-1. Epub 2005 May 14.


We present a 15-month-old boy who developed fulminant hepatic failure after ingesting 10 ml of clove oil. After 24 h, the ALT level was in excess of 13,000 U/l, with blood urea and creatinine of 11.8 mmol and 134 micromol/l respectively. The hepatic impairment resolved after intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine so that 6 h later, the ALT level was approximately 10,000 U/l. His liver synthetic function and clinical status improved over the next 4 days. This is the first such case report of its kind in Europe. Analysis of a national database revealed a 14-fold increase in home accidents related to aromatherapy from 1994-1999. Clove oil has important hepatotoxic effects.

Conclusion: Recent growth in aromatherapy sales has been accompanied by an unfortunate increase in accidental poisoning from these products. Clove oil warrants special attention. Ingesting as little as 10 ml causes hepatotoxicity which can be treated with N-acetylcysteine.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Accidents, Home
  • Acetylcysteine / therapeutic use*
  • Databases as Topic*
  • Eugenol / poisoning*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Liver Failure / chemically induced*
  • Liver Failure / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Oils, Volatile / poisoning*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United Kingdom


  • Oils, Volatile
  • Eugenol
  • Acetylcysteine