Neurofilament phosphoforms: surrogate markers for axonal injury, degeneration and loss

J Neurol Sci. 2005 Jun 15;233(1-2):183-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2005.03.015.


This review on the role of neurofilaments as surrogate markers for axonal degeneration in neurological diseases provides a brief background to protein synthesis, assembly, function and degeneration. Methodological techniques for quantification are described and a protein nomenclature is proposed. The relevance for recognising anti-neurofilament autoantibodies is noted. Pathological implications are discussed in view of immunocytochemical, cell-culture and genetic findings. With reference to the present symposium on multiple sclerosis, the current literature on body fluid levels of neurofilaments in demyelinating disease is summarised.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axons / metabolism*
  • Axons / pathology
  • Biomarkers / metabolism*
  • Blotting, Western / methods
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • Models, Biological
  • Nerve Degeneration / diagnosis*
  • Nerve Degeneration / metabolism
  • Neurofilament Proteins / chemistry
  • Neurofilament Proteins / genetics
  • Neurofilament Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism


  • Biomarkers
  • Neurofilament Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms