Tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2 is not only expressed on glioma cells, but is naturally processed and presented by their surface MHC molecules and is recognized by TRP-2-specific cytotoxic T cells. After active immunotherapy, we detected TRP-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Tumor cells from postvaccination resections showed significantly lower TRP-2 expression and higher sensitivity to carboplatin and temozolomide than those autologous cell lines from prevaccination resections in two patients who demonstrated CTL response to TRP-2. One of two patients underwent treatment with temozolomide after recurrence and responded dramatically. TRP-2-transfected cell line (TRP-2-U373) resulted in significant drug resistance to carboplatin and temozolomide compared to wild-type U-373 (W-U373). There was no significant difference, however, in the mRNA expression of other common drug resistance related proteins, such as BCRP-1, MGMT, MDR-1, MRP-1 and MRP-3, after TRP-2 transfection. TRP-2-U373 tumor cells were immunoselected by a TRP-2-specific CTL line. The immunoselected cells (IS-TRP-2-U373) demonstrated significantly increased sensitivity to carboplatin and temozolomide compared to TRP-2-U373. For the first time, we provide evidence that immunological targeting of tumor-associated antigen TRP-2 significantly increases sensitivity to chemotherapy.