Cross-reactivity between antibodies to different human coronaviruses (HCoVs) has not been systematically studied. By use of Western blot analysis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antigenic cross-reactivity between severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2 HCoVs (229E and OC43) was demonstrated in immunized animals and human serum. In 5 of 11 and 10 of 11 patients with SARS, paired serum samples showed a > or =4-fold increase in antibody titers against HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, respectively, by IFA. Overall, serum samples from convalescent patients who had SARS had a 1-way cross-reactivity with the 2 known HCoVs. Antigens of SARS-CoV and HCoV-OC43 were more cross-reactive than were those of SARS-CoV and HCoV-229E.