Background: Our goal was to describe trends in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Methods: We used time-trend analysis of annual invasive pneumococcal disease incidence rates from a population-based, active surveillance system. Annual incidence rates were calculated for 5 July-June periods by use of data from San Francisco county, the 6-county Baltimore metropolitan area, and Connecticut. The numerators were the numbers of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections among persons 18-64 years of age with AIDS; the denominators were the numbers of persons living with AIDS, estimated on the basis of AIDS surveillance data.
Results: The annual incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined from 1094 cases/100,000 persons with AIDS (July 1995-June 1996) to 467 cases/100,000 persons living with AIDS (July 1999-June 2000). The annual percentage changes in incidence were -34%, -29%, -8%, and -1%. Declines were similar by surveillance area, sex, and race/ethnicity. During the final year of the study, the invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in persons with AIDS was half that of the pre-HAART era but was still 35 times higher than that in similarly aged non-HIV-infected adults.
Conclusions: In the United States, invasive pneumococcal disease incidence declined sharply across a range of subgroups living with AIDS during the period after widespread introduction of HAART. Despite these gains, persons with AIDS remain at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease.