Evolvulus alsinoides (EA) is well known for its memory enhancement, antiepileptic and immunomodulatory properties in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. In view of the increasing attention towards plants offering non-specific resistance (adaptogens) towards stress, we have evaluated crude ethanolic extract of EA for its adaptogenic and memory enhancing properties in rodents. Adaptogenic activity was assessed in rats subjected to acute and chronic unpredictable stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-200 g were immobilized for 150 min once only in acute stress (AS) model, whereas in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model rats were subjected to different types of stressors daily for 7 days. Stress exposure has induced gastric ulceration with increase in adrenal gland weight, plasma creatine kinase (CK), and corticosterone level in AS and CUS. However plasma glucose was increased only in AS. Rats were treated with graded doses of crude ethanolic extract of EA (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 days and subjected to AS on 3 day after 45 min of last dose. In CUS, EA at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. found effective in acute studies was administered 45 min prior to stress regimen for 7 days. EA reduced the stress induced perturbations similar to Panax quinquefolium (PQ) (100 mg/kg p.o.), a well known adaptogen. EA (100 mg/kg) administered orally for 3 days in adult male Swiss mice, was effective in decreasing scopolamine induced deficit in passive avoidance test. The improvement in the peripheral stress markers and scopolamine induced dementia by EA in the present study indicates the adaptogenic and anti-amnesic properties of EA.