Objective: The goal of this study was to define the haplotype structure of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 gene in a European American population and evaluate associations between CYP2C9 haplotypes and anticoagulation-related outcomes.
Methods: Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from 192 European American patients stabilized on warfarin therapy was resequenced across 60 kilobases of the CYP2C9 genomic region, including all exons, dense sampling of introns, approximately 10 kilobases of the 5'-flanking region, and approximately 1.7 kilobases of the 3'-untranslated region.
Results: A total of 132 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected, of which 47 were present in the 5'-flanking promoter region, 11 in the exonic coding region, and 74 in the intron regions. Nine nonsynonymous SNPs in the coding region consisted of CYP2C9*2 , *3 , *9 , *11 , and *12 ; R125H; and 3 new structural variants. Sixty SNPs were present at a minor allele frequency of greater than 5%, and from this subpopulation, 23 haplotypes were inferred. Clustering analysis identified 6 major groups of related haplotypes that were further designated 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2, or 3. The *2 and *3 SNPs appeared exclusively in groups 2 and 3, and these groups combined were associated with significantly reduced warfarin maintenance doses, longer time to stable dosing, and increased risk of bleeding. In contrast, combinations of haplotypes 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D were not associated with differences in any of these outcomes.
Conclusion: These data establish a whole-gene, high-resolution haplotype structure for CYP2C9 in a European American patient population and suggest that genetic variation in exons, rather than the promoter or other regulatory regions, is largely responsible for warfarin sensitivity associated with CYP2C9 variants in this population.