A new species, Enterobacter ludwigii, is presented on the basis of the characteristics of 16 strains, which were isolated from clinical specimens. These bacteria form a distinct genetic cluster in phylogenetic analyses of the population structure of the Enterobacter cloacae complex. As determined by DNA-DNA cross-hybridization experiments in microplates, this genetic cluster can be delineated from the other species of the E. cloacae complex with deltaTm values equal to or above 5 degrees C with Enterobacter hormaechei being the closest relative. The bacteria are gram-negative, fermentative, motile rods with the general characteristics of the genus Enterobacter and the E. cloacae complex in particular. E. ludwigii can be differentiated from the other Enterobacter species by its growth on myo-inositol and 3-0-methyl-D-glucopyranose. The type strain is EN-119 (= DSM 16688T = CIP 108491T).