The purpose of this study was to analyze the CT findings in lymphangitic carcinomatosis and to determine how the abnormalities seen on CT correlated with histologic findings and the results of pulmonary function tests. Accordingly, we reviewed CT findings in 20 proved cases and correlated them with histologic findings and with results of pulmonary function tests (available in 11). Special attention was given to the extent and degree of thickening of the peripheral and/or axial interstitium as seen on CT. In 15 of 20 patients, CT scans showed marked thickening of axial interstitium and subtle or no thickening of peripheral interstitium (four diffuse and 11 localized). In three cases, CT showed marked thickening of both axial and peripheral interstitium (two diffuse and one localized). In two cases, CT showed marked thickening of peripheral interstitium and subtle or no thickening of axial interstitium (one diffuse and one localized). These CT findings correlated with the pathologic findings. Marked impairment of vital capacity and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was observed in three patients (one with diffuse and peripheral interstitial thickening and two with diffuse and both peripheral and axial interstitial thickening). We conclude that CT findings in patients with lymphangitic carcinomatosis are variable and that marked impairment of pulmonary function occurs in patients with diffuse and peripheral interstitial thickening. Marked impairment of pulmonary function can be predicted from CT findings.