A survey of Japanese patients with Menkes disease from 1990 to 2003: incidence and early signs before typical symptomatic onset, pointing the way to earlier diagnosis

J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(4):473-8. doi: 10.1007/s10545-005-0473-3.


Menkes disease (MNK) is a lethal, X-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism dominated by neurodegenerative symptoms and connective tissue disturbances. The incidence of MNK in Asia is not known. Most patients die by the age of 3 years if adequate treatment is not carried out. Early parenteral administration of copper can prevent the neurological disturbances and lead to a better outcome. In the present study, a survey on MNK in Japan was performed. There were in total 53 live-born Japanese patients with MNK collected from 1990 to 2003, including two females. The incidence of live-born MNK patients between 1992 and 2002 was 2.8 per million live births (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 3.7), 4.9 per million male live births (95% CI: 3.2 to 6.6). One-third of the patients were born before 37 weeks or weighing less than 2500 g. Seventeen per cent were born both before 37 gestational weeks and weighing less than 2500 g. These proportions were higher than those in Japanese live-birth babies according to a nationwide estimate. The hair on these Japanese patients appeared not only as white or grey but also brown and blond. We also found that many signs had been noted before the patient was brought to a hospital with typical symptoms. These signs may be a clue to early diagnosis of MNK.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Birth Weight
  • Ceruloplasmin / biosynthesis
  • Child, Preschool
  • Copper / blood
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Phenotype
  • Pregnancy
  • Time Factors


  • Copper
  • Ceruloplasmin