Use of an overhead goal alters vertical jump performance and biomechanics

J Strength Cond Res. 2005 May;19(2):394-9. doi: 10.1519/15834.1.


This study examined whether an extrinsic motivator, such as an overhead goal, during a plyometric jump may alter movement biomechanics. Our purpose was to examine the effects of an overhead goal on vertical jump height and lower-extremity biomechanics during a drop vertical jump and to compare the effects on female (N = 18) versus male (N = 17) athletes. Drop vertical jump was performed both with and without the use of an overhead goal. Greater vertical jump height (p = 0.002) and maximum takeoff external knee flexion (quadriceps) moment (p = 0.04) were attained with the overhead goal condition versus no overhead goal. Men had significantly greater vertical jump height (p < 0.001), maximum takeoff vertical force (p = 0.009), and maximum takeoff hip extensor moment (p = 0.02) compared with women. A significant gender x overhead goal interaction was found for stance time (p = 0.02) and maximum ankle (p = 0.04) and knee flexion angles (p = 0.04), with shorter stance times and lower angles in men during overhead goal time. These results indicate that overhead goals may be incorporated during training and testing protocols to alter lower-extremity biomechanics and can increase performance.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Female
  • Hip / physiology
  • Humans
  • Knee / physiology
  • Male
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Posture / physiology
  • Range of Motion, Articular / physiology
  • Sex Factors
  • Sports / physiology*
  • Sports Equipment
  • Task Performance and Analysis*