The control of food intake and satiety requires a coordinated interplay. Oral protein and duodenal fat inhibit food intake and induce satiety, but their interactive potential is unclear. Our aim was therefore to investigate the interactions between an oral protein preload and intraduodenal (ID) fat on food intake and satiety feelings. Twenty healthy male volunteers were studied in a randomized, double-blind, four-period crossover design. On each study day, subjects underwent one of the following treatments: 1) water preload plus ID saline perfusion, 2) water preload plus ID fat perfusion, 3) protein preload plus ID saline perfusion, or 4) protein preload plus ID fat perfusion. Subjects were free to eat and drink as much as they wished. An oral protein preload significantly reduced caloric intake (19%, P < 0.01). Simultaneous administration of an oral protein preload and ID fat did not result in a positive synergistic effect with respect to caloric consumption, rejecting the initial hypothesis that the two nutrients exert a positive synergistic effect on food intake. An oral protein preload but not ID fat altered the feelings of hunger and fullness. These data indicate that the satiety effect of an oral protein preload is not amplified by ID fat; indeed, the effect of a protein preload does not seem to be mediated by cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, or peptide YY. Much more information is necessary to understand the basic physiological mechanisms that control food intake and satiety.