Embryonic stem cell differentiation: emergence of a new era in biology and medicine

Genes Dev. 2005 May 15;19(10):1129-55. doi: 10.1101/gad.1303605.

Abstract

The discovery of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells >20 years ago represented a major advance in biology and experimental medicine, as it enabled the routine manipulation of the mouse genome. Along with the capacity to induce genetic modifications, ES cells provided the basis for establishing an in vitro model of early mammalian development and represented a putative new source of differentiated cell types for cell replacement therapy. While ES cells have been used extensively for creating mouse mutants for more than a decade, their application as a model for developmental biology has been limited and their use in cell replacement therapy remains a goal for many in the field. Recent advances in our understanding of ES cell differentiation, detailed in this review, have provided new insights essential for establishing ES cell-based developmental models and for the generation of clinically relevant populations for cell therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology*
  • Cell Lineage / physiology*
  • Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy / trends
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / transplantation
  • Stem Cell Transplantation / trends