Emerging roles of apelin in biology and medicine

Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Aug;107(2):198-211. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.04.001.


The family of apelin peptides is derived from a single gene and activates the 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) APJ. Apelins have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function and fluid homeostasis and interestingly represent substrates for ACE2, a carboxypeptidase recently described as a novel key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS). APJ has further been reported to be a coreceptor for the infection of CD4-positive cells with HIV in the central nervous system (CNS). Apelin-36 and shorter C-terminal sequences have different potencies and efficacies in regulating these functions. Shorter sequences, especially (Pyr(1))apelin-13, are potent regulators of cardiovascular function, while longer peptides such as apelin-36 are more effective in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by blocking the HIV coreceptor APJ. The pyroglutamate modification characteristic of the short apelin peptide (Pyr(1))apelin-13 indicates paramount biological importance of this peptide. The aim of this review is to compile conclusive evidence for the involvement of apelin/APJ in the regulation of cardiovascular function and HIV pathology, emphasizing the properties of this receptor system that may make it a successful future drug target.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apelin
  • Apelin Receptors
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Ligands
  • Protein Binding
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / chemistry
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology*
  • Receptors, HIV / metabolism
  • Receptors, HIV / physiology*


  • APLN protein, human
  • APLNR protein, human
  • Apelin
  • Apelin Receptors
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Receptors, HIV