Intake of vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis

Lancet Neurol. 2005 Jun;4(6):362-5. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70097-1.


We studied the effect of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene intake on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1966 and March 2005 searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Eight studies were identified (six case-control, one cohort, and one cross-sectional). We found that dietary intake of vitamin E protects against PD. This protective influence was seen with both moderate intake (relative risk 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.98) and high intake (0.78, 0.57-1.06) of vitamin E, although the possible benefit associated with high intake of vitamin E was not significant. The studies did not suggest any protective effects associated with vitamin C or beta carotene. We conclude that dietary vitamin E may have a neuroprotective effect attenuating the risk of PD. These results require confirmation in randomised controlled trials.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use*
  • Carotenoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Parkinson Disease / diet therapy*
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology
  • Parkinson Disease / prevention & control*
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin E / therapeutic use*
  • beta Carotene / therapeutic use*


  • beta Carotene
  • Vitamin E
  • Carotenoids
  • Ascorbic Acid