Imprinted genes show differential expression between maternal and paternal alleles as a consequence of epigenetic modification that can result in 'parent-of-origin' effects on phenotypic traits. There is increasing evidence from mouse and human studies that imprinted genes may influence behavior and cognitive functioning. Previous work in girls with Turner syndrome (45,XO) has suggested that there are X-linked parent-of-origin effects on brain development and cognitive functioning, although the interpretation of these data in terms of imprinted gene effects has been questioned. We used a 39,XO mouse model to examine the influence of the parental origin of the X chromosome on cognitive behaviors and expression of X-linked genes in brain. Our findings confirm the existence of X-linked imprinted effects on cognitive processes and identify a new maternally expressed imprinted gene candidate on the X chromosome, Xlr3b, which may be of importance in mediating the behavioral effects.