P-glycoprotein (P-gp), coded by the ABCB1 gene, has a wide tissue distribution. The drug transporter is known to limit the bioavailability of a plethora of drugs and xenobiotics including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors. There remains a considerable degree of debate in the literature with respect to the role of ABCB1 polymorphisms in HIV-treatment outcome and some studies have also implicated antiretroviral drugs as inducers of P-gp. Recent evidence indicates a role for P-gp in the inhibition of viral infectivity and/or release and cellular relationships with other infection-related proteins (and cholesterol). It is becoming increasingly clear that future studies on P-gp in HIV should consider both pharmacological and virological issues.