The role of magnesium in the regulation of 25(OH)D3-24R-hydroxylase and 25(OH)D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase in vitro remains to be clarified. Using a radiochemical assay, the effect of substrate concentration on both enzymes was measured in rat kidney homogenates as well as the alterations in their kinetic behaviour resulting from changes in the magnesium concentration in the incubation medium. The results showed that magnesium could be a modulator of 24- and 1 alpha-hydroxylases. Variations in magnesium caused alterations in the kinetic behaviour of both enzymes, which altered the synthesis rates of 24,25(OH)2D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3. Moreover, the substrate concentration was clearly involved in the response of both enzymes to the modulation by magnesium.