The full potential of cadaveric islet transplantation will only be realized by avoiding both pretransplant insults programming islets for subsequent death and posttransplant triggers for apoptosis and necrosis. The immediate blood mediated inflammatory response causes significant islet loss in the immediate posttransplant period. However, if we focus on this alone we will miss many opportunities to improve transplanted islet survival. Even when single donor islet transplants become the norm, there will still be more patients who might benefit from islet transplants than grafts available. Input from "transplanters" and diabetologists is essential in order to select appropriate patients for islet transplantation.